Class 12 Economics NCERT Books in Hindi and English: CBSE Academic Session 2021-22
The NCERT Class 12 Economics Manual (PDF) is available here. With this article, you can access PDF files by chapter of NCERT Class 12 Economics Manual.
The NCERT Class 12 Economics Manual (PDF of all chapters) is available here. With this article, you can access PDF files by chapter of NCERT Class 12 Economics Manual. Here we have provided latest edition of NCERT Class 12 Economics Manual. Links to access PDFs are given below- below.
NCERT Books for Class 12 Economics (Hindi and English): Introduction to Microeconomics
NCERT Books for Class 12 Economics (Hindi and English): Introduction to Macroeconomics
Important topics of CBSE Class 12 Economics:
What is macroeconomics?
⇒ Basic concepts in macroeconomics: consumer goods, capital goods, finished goods, intermediate goods; stocks and flows; gross investment and depreciation.
⇒ Circular income flow (two sector model); Methods of calculating national income – value added or product method, expenditure method, income method.
Aggregates linked to National Income:
⇒ Gross national product (GNP), net national product (PNN), gross domestic product (GDP) and net domestic product (PND) – at market price, at factor cost; Real and nominal GDP, GDP deflator.
GDP and well-being
⇒ Money – meaning and supply of money – Money held by the public and net sight deposits held by commercial banks.
Money creation by the commercial banking system.
⇒ Central bank and its functions (example of the Reserve Bank of India): Bank of issue, Govt. Bank, bank banking, credit control through discount rate, CRR, SLR, repo rate and reverse repo rate, open market operations, margin requirement.
⇒ Aggregate demand and its components.
⇒ Propensity to consume and propensity to save (average and marginal). Short-term equilibrium production; investment multiplier and its mechanism. ⇒ Meaning of full employment and involuntary unemployment.
⇒ Problems of excess demand and deficient demand; measures to correct them – changes in government spending, taxes and money supply.
⇒ State budget – meaning, objectives and components.
⇒ Classification of income – income and capital income; classification of expenditure – expenditure as income and expenditure on capital.
⇒ Public deficit measures – revenue deficit, budget deficit, primary deficit their meaning.
⇒ Balance of payments account – meaning and components; balance of payments deficit – meaning.
⇒ Exchange rate – meaning of fixed and flexible and floating rates managed. Determination of the exchange rate in a free market.
⇒ A brief introduction to the state of the Indian economy on the eve of independence. Indian economic system and common goals of five-year plans.
⇒ Main characteristics, problems and policies of agriculture (institutional aspects and new agricultural strategy), industry (IPR 1956; SSI – role and importance) and foreign trade.
⇒ Economic reforms since 1991:
⇒ Characteristics and assessments of liberalization, globalization and privatization (LPG policy); Concepts of demonetization and TPS
⇒ Poverty – absolute and relative; Main Poverty Reduction Programs: A Critical Appraisal;
⇒ Human capital formation: How people become resources; Role of human capital in economic development; Growth of the education sector in India
⇒ Rural development: Key issues – credit and marketing – role of cooperatives; agricultural diversification; alternative agriculture – organic agriculture
⇒ Employment: Growth and evolution of the rate of participation in the labor market in the formal and informal sectors; issues and policies
⇒ Infrastructure: Meaning and types: Case studies: Energy and health: Problems and
⇒ Policies – A critical assessment;
⇒ Sustainable economic development: meaning, effects of economic development on
⇒ Resources and environment, including global warming
⇒ A comparison with neighbors: India and Pakistan, India and China
⇒ Stakes: economic growth, population, sector development and others